Hepatitis A is transmitted by the faecal-oral route either through contaminated water and food, especially shellfish, or through person to person contact when personal hygiene is poor and occurs in all countries with poor sanitation and public hygiene.
Active vaccination can be given from 1 year of age. It can also be combined with Hepatitis B or Typhoid. Side effects are usually mild and are most commonly local redness and swelling and less commonly fever, headache and malaise.
Regime: One injection gives 12 months cover. A booster at 6-12 months gives cover for at least 20 years and probably lifelong.
Indications as Hepatitis A and B above but can be given when neither of the above vaccines have been received before.
Regimes: Day 0,28 and again at 6 months. Rapid schedule Day 0,7 and 21 with a booster at 12m.
Hepatitis B is transmitted through infected blood and blood products, sexual intercourse with an infected partner, blood to blood contacts such as injuries in playgrounds, contaminated instruments during medical and dental procedures, acupuncture and body piercing, sharing used intra-venous needles and face or head shaving when razors are reused. Vaccination is recommended for people travelling to high and medium risk areas either frequently or for extended periods, people who are at risk because of their occupation or lifestyle and people who may need medical attention whilst away because of a pre existing medical condition.
Regimes: Days 0, 28 and again at 6 months.
Rapid schedules Day 0, 28, 56 and again at 12 months. Or Days 0, 7, 21 and again at 12 months.
Typhoid is transmitted mainly by food and drink that has been contaminated with the excreta of a human case or carrier (faeces or urine.)
Vaccination is recommended for travellers to areas where food and water are likely to be contaminated. Side effects can be sometimes a sore injection site and mild fever.
Regime: One injection gives 3 years cover.
Yellow fever is transmitted via the bite of an infected mosquito in areas where the virus is present in monkeys.
Vaccination is recommended for travellers to areas where the virus is present. Some countries in the infected zones demand a valid yellow fever certificate as a condition of entry into that country. Side effects of the vaccine are, sometimes mild fever and malaise and rarely rashes and anaphylaxis.
Regime: One injection lasts for at least 35 years and probably life depending on certificate requirements. Needs to be given at least 10 days before travel.
Rabies is transmitted via the bite of an infected animal. Once Rabies develops there is no cure and the disease is fatal. Vaccination is recommended for those travelling to countries where Rabies is present and will be working with animals. Also those going to countries where Rabies is present and will be 24 hours away from a reliable source of post exposure vaccine and specific immunoglobulin. Side effects are local discomfort and rarely fever and malaise.
Regimes: Day 0, 7 and 21. Intra Muscular (IM).
Day 0, 7 and 21. Intra Dermal (ID) (Unlicensed method only available at certain times of the year.) This method has been used for many years in various countries and studies have shown it to be safe with only a marginally reduced rate of efficacy compared with the licensed route, but at a significant cost saving and is approved by the World Health Organisation.
Boosters not routinely recommended unless at continuing risk (ie vets or working with animals)
JAPANESE B. ENCEPHALITIS
Transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito that normally breeds in rice paddies where pigs and wading birds carry the virus. Children and elderly have an increased risk.
Vaccination should be considered for repeat visits or prolonged stays in endemic areas especially if staying in rural areas. During transmission season in rural areas risk of acquisition is 1 per 5000 per month.
Side effects are local reactions at the site of injection, urticaria or rash, rarely fever and aching joints and extremely rarely more serious side effects.. This provides 1 year of cover.
Regime: Day 0 and 28.
TICK BORNE ENCEPHALITIS
Tick Borne Encephalitis is an infection spread by the bite of a tick and occurs in Northern Europe and Scandinavia.
Vaccination is recommended for those exposed to tick bites in affected areas, such as long term residents, ramblers, scouts, campers and foresters.
Side effects are occasionally redness, swelling at the injection site and fever.
Regime: Day 0, and 21 with a third dose 9-12 months after the first.
Cholera is transmitted usually via contaminated water but also shellfish and food. Cholera is rare in travellers unless they are living in particularly poor hygienic conditions. Care should be taken to avoid contaminated drinking water and foods.
Vaccination is recommended for those unable to take precautions for example during wars and when working in refugee camps or slums or where there are Cholera outbreaks.
Side effects to the vaccine can be gastrointestinal upset and headache.
Advised for those going to at risk areas when going to be in close contact with the local population, staying for long periods or repeated visits. Short term tourists are thought not to be at risk Vaccination with certificate is a condition of entry to the Haj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia.
Regime: One injection lasts for 3 years
Advised for countries of high prevalence when staying for more than three months for under 16 year olds. Testing and vaccination is done by the TB service at Nottingham City Hospital.
Persons born after 1970 (unless at high risk) need to have had 2 doses of this vaccine. It is given via the NHS.
Most vaccines are perfectly safe but can occasionally cause side effects, these are usually mild and resolve in a day or two but rarely worse side effects can occur and persist for a few days. If you have an important presentation, exam or meeting you may wish if time permitting to delay your vaccinations.
provided by the University of Nottingham Health Service.
This is a combined vaccine and is required for travellers if it is 10 years or more since the previous dose. Side effects are redness at site of injection and rarely fever and malaise.
Regime: Normally one booster dose which lasts at least 10 years.
Nationwide Vaccine Shortages
The following vaccines continue to be in short supply in the United Kingdom and globally.
The amount we are able to order from our suppliers has been severely restricted, and in some cases is not available at all.
Until normal vaccine supply resumes, some products may not be available or may be reserved for special at risk groups.
Our health professionals are following the temporary guidance provided by the Joint Committee of Vaccination and Immunisation, Public Health England and NaTHNaC
Advice for Travellers
Hepatitis A is a highly infectious virus that can cause liver problems. The virus is usually spread by food or water contaminated by human faeces, or by direct contact with an infectious person, including sexual contact. Hepatitis A is rare in the UK, with most cases occurring in travellers who have recently visited countries where the disease is common.
You can reduce your risk of Hepatitis A virus by following advice on food and water hygiene and by ensuring good personal hygiene. Wash your hand after visiting the toilet, changing nappies and before preparing or eating food